The ecological performance of tetra-, penta- and hexaploid geophyte Allium oleraceum in reciproca

Martin Duchoslav*, Martina Fialová and Michaela Jandová   2017-07-04 23:26:16

Plant Biosystematics and Ecology RG, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic

*Correspondence address. Plant Biosystematics and Ecology RG, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic. Tel: +420 585 634 805; Fax: +420 585 634 002; E-mail: martin.duchoslav@upol.cz

Journal of Plant Ecology

VOLUME 10, NUMBER 3,PAGES 569–580

June 2017

doi: 10.1093/jpe/rtw039

Advance Access publication 28 April 2016

available online at academic.oup.com/jpe

Abstract

Aims

Many polyploids are geographically separated from their lowerploidy progenitors at a variety of spatial scales. Diverse adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to these spatial patterns. A long-standing hypothesis holds that polyploids are established and persist due to specialization to different ecological conditions compared to their progenitors. However, experimental approaches testing this hypothesis remain rare. Empirical evidence for niche differences among ploidy levels has been found previously for the European polyploid geophyte Allium oleraceum. Here, we conducted a 5-year reciprocal transplant experiment with tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid A. oleraceum to test for adaptation at the ploidy and population levels.

Methods

In 2006, we sowed 2160 aerial bulbils among six sites (two per cytotype, central and western Moravia, the Czech Republic) and monitored their emergence in 2007, their survival until 2011 and their performance in 2011.

Important Findings

The emergence of bulbils was high at all target sites, and no evi dence for niche differentiation among cytotypes was recorded in the first year. Survival in the following years was relatively high, but significantly better survival for plants of home ploidy than foreign ploidy was recorded. No plant reached the reproductive stage during our experiment. Adopting a strict definition of local adaptation, local plants only rarely performed better than foreign plants at both sites in pairwise comparisons within a cytotype. Together, our results suggest weak niche differentiation among cytotypes and provide limited support for the existence of local adaptation within cytotypes. Thus, all cytotypes are able to establish in habitats typically populated by other cytotypes via aerial bulbil spread, but will likely die out gradually in non-native habitats. This ability may explain the occurrence of some multiple-cytotype populations. The complex spatial pattern of A.  oleraceum cytotypes is therefore the result of several interacting factors, including niche differentiation among cytotypes, the different evolutionary ages of cytotypes, the existence of gene flow between and within cytotypes, the dominance of clonality and stochastic events linked to anthropogenic dispersal and disturbance.

Keywords: Allium oleraceum, bulbils, reciprocal transplant, local adaptation, niche differentiation

Received: 20 October 2015, Revised: 14 April 2016, Accepted: 23 April 2016

上一篇回2017年6月第3期目录 下一篇 (方向键翻页,回车键返回目录)加入书签

© 2016 毕业论文网 > The ecological performance of tetra-, penta- and hexaploid geophyte Allium oleraceum in reciproca